# IB Physics

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This page contains fully editable PowerPoint slideshows for the current International Baccalaureate (IB) course in Physics. Topics 1 to 8 cover the Standard Level course and you will also find slideshows for Higher Level topics 9 to 12, along with the optional Engineering unit.

# Powerpoints for the following units:

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## Physics:

## Topic 1 - Measurements and Uncertainties

This slideshow covers the content of Topic 1 from the IB Physics course. It includes: standard form, prefixes, SI units, derived units, estimations, true values, accuracy, uncertainty expressed as an absolute and as a percentage, example micrometer measurements, percentage differences, precision, random errors, zero errors, systematic errors, drawing error boxes on a graph, uncertainties in gradients, compounding uncertainties, vector quantities, how to resolve vectors.

## Topic 2 - Mechanics

This slideshow covers Topic 2 from the IB Physics course, including: distance, speed and time, acceleration, distance vs displacement, speed vs velocity, vector and scalar quantities, distance-time graphs, velocity-time graphs, equations of motion for uniformly accelerating objects (SUVAT equations), resolving vectors, vertical projection, projectile motion, terminal velocity in liquids, different types of force, the four fundamental forces, weight vs mass, Newton's 3 Laws of Motion, free body force diagrams, friction, the coefficient of friction, static and dynamic friction, types of energy, calculating kinetic and gravitational potential energy, conservation of energy and using it to determine speed, elastic potential energy, work done, power, efficiency, momentum, conservation of momentum in collisions and explosions, impulse, force-time graphs and change in momentum, energy loss in collisions, elastic and inelastic collisions, kinetic energy of particles.

## Topic 3 - Thermal Physics

This slideshow covers: revision of particle theory, specific latent heat, energy changes during changes of state, latent heat of fusion, specific heat capacity, how to determine specific heat capacity and specific latent heat by experiment, particle motion in gases, pressure, pressure and volume in gases, Boyle's Law, pressure and temperature in gases, absolute temperature, Charles' Law, moles and molecules, the Ideal Gas Equation, real gases vs ideal gases, molecular speed and temperature.

## Topic 4 - Waves

This topic covers the entire "Waves" unit from the International Baccalaureate Physics course, including: definitions of terms such as amplitude and frequency, phase difference, simple harmonic motion, graphs of displacement, velocity and acceleration for SHM, maximum values for SHM, energy changes during SHM, travelling waves, the wave equation, transverse and longitudinal waves, measuring the speed of waves, electromagnetic radiation, the EM spectrum, wavefronts, dissipation of a wave, superposition, constructive and destructive interference, polarisation, Malus' Law, reflection of waves, refraction of waves, Snell's Law, the critical angle, example questions on the critical angle, measuring the refractive index of a material, diffraction, path difference, interference patterns from single and double slits, Young's Double Slit experiment, standing waves, nodes and antinodes, harmonics in wind and string instruments, nodes and antinodes in open and closed pipes.

## Topic 5 - Electricity and Magnetism

This slideshow includes PowerPoint slides to help you teach topic 5 from the IB Physics course, including: electric current, conventional current, revision of AC and DC, charge and current, calculating charge using Q=It, definition of voltage, electrical work done, electric fields and point charges (positive and negative), Coulomb's Law, uniform electric fields, the electronvolt, carrier density, drift speed, drift speeds down wires of different areas, current and voltage in series and parallel circuits, Kirchoff's Laws, resistances of voltmeters and ammeters, the heating effect of currents, V=IR, calculating resistance, Ohmic and non-Ohmic conductors, I-V graphs for bulbs and diodes, resistors in series and parallel circuits, potential dividers, practical applications of potential dividers in circuits, resistivity, electrical power, EMF, internal resistance, electric potentials, how cells lose voltage over time, recharging a battery, magnetic fields around bar magnets and wires, making an electromagnet, the motor effect, F=BIL, charged particles in magnetic fields, F=BQv, circular paths of charged particles.

## Topic 6 - Circular Motion and Gravitation

This slideshow covers: circular motion and how it relates to speed and velocity, centripetal acceleration, centripetal force, using radians, circular motion equations with example questions, Newton's Law of Gravitation, gravitational fields, gravity and centripetal force, gravitational field strength, comparison between gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

## Topic 7 - Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics

This slideshow covers: spectra, absorption and emission spectra, energy levels, converting energy changes into discrete energy levels, absorption and emission of radiation and how it relates to energy levels, facts about the atom, mass and atomic number, isotopes, background radiation, changes in mass and proton number during radioactive decay, blocking radiation, half life, evidence for neutrinos, radioactive decay equations, the unified atomic mass unit, binding energy, energy-mass equivalence, binding energy by nucleon, nuclear fusion and fission, calculating energy released by fission and fusion, using different units for mass, the structure of an atom, Rutherford Scattering, fundamental particles, the Standard Model, quarks and their properties, antiquarks, baryons and mesons, hadrons and leptons, conserving properties such as lepton number and baryon number, four fundamental forces, exchange bosons, particle interactions, Feynman diagrams and how to draw them, strangeness, confinement, the Higgs Boson.

## Topic 8 - Energy Production

This slideshow matches topic 8 from the IB Physics course, including: efficiency, drawing energy transfers, Sankey Diagrams, comparing efficient and non-efficient bulbs, fuels, renewable and non-renewable sources of energy, power stations, energy changes in power stations, fossil fuels, nuclear power and how it works, primary and secondary energy sources, wind power, hydroelectric power, solar power, specific energy, energy density, conduction in metals and non-metals, convection currents, infra-red radiation, heat transfer in practical situations, luminosity, blackbodies, emissivity, intensity, the Solar Constant, albedo, how colour relates to temperature, radiation from blackbodies, Wien's Displacement Law, the temperature of the Earth and what it depends on, the Greenhouse Effect, absorption of radiation by the atmosphere, average temperature of the Earth, Wien's Law and the Greenhouse Effect.

## Topic 9 - Wave Phenomena

This slideshow covers: a recap of circular motion and its equations, simple harmonic motion, graphs of displacement, velocity and time for SHM, SHM equations with trig functions, maximum values for SHM, mass-spring and pendulum systems as examples of SHM, energy changes during SHM, diffraction from single slits, how wavelength or slit size effects the diffraction pattern, coherence, superposition, path difference for constructive and destructive interference, Young's Double Slit experiment, interference patterns from two slits, modulation, thin film interference and how it works, the maths of thin film interference, how refractive index affects thin film interference, image resolution, the Rayleigh Criterion, diffraction gratings, resolvance using diffraction gratings, the Doppler Effect, spectra, moving light sources and how their wavelength and frequency are affected, example questions on the maths of the Doppler Effect.

## Topic 10 - Fields

This PowerPoint covers: a recap of the different types of force, electric fields around point charges, uniform electric fields between parallel plates, equipotentials between charged plates and around a charged point, gravitational equipotentials, work done, gravitational field strength, inverse square laws concerning electric and gravitational fields, graphs of gravitational and electrostatic field strengths as a function of distance, electric potential, field strength in terms of potential, potential gradients, drawing fields, escape velocity, orbital kinetic energy, orbital speed, total orbital energy.

## Topic 11 - Electromagnetic Induction

his slideshow covers: a recap of the Motor Effect, electromagnetic induction and how it works, flux, flux linkage, Faraday's Law, EM induction caused by a magnet falling through a coil, Lenz's Law, how Lenz's Law is a consequence of energy conservation, cutting field lines, AC generators, how transformers work, a revision of alternating current, RMS value, resistance and average power, the transformer equation, power in transformers, how transformers are used in power distribution, why transformers are not 100% efficient, how to improve the efficiency of a transformer, diodes, how diodes work, full-wave rectification using diodes, smoothing, capacitors, definition of capacitance, dielectrics, charging and discharging a capacitor, current-time graph for capacitors, how resistance affects charging and discharging times, capacitor combinations, time constant, energy stored in a capacitor, exponential decay functions for capacitors, turning exponential decay into a straight line graph.

## Topic 12 - Quantum and Nuclear Phyics

This PowerPoint covers: a recap of emission spectra, the electromagnetic spectrum, gold leaf electroscopes, photoelectric emission and how it depends on frequency, photoelectron energy and how to measure it, photocurrents and factors that affect them, stopping voltages, threshold frequencies, wave-particle duality, interference patterns from double slits, electron diffraction, energy-mass equivalence, paid production and annihilation, the Bohr model of the atom, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, electron confinement, the Schrodinger Wave equation, electron tunnelling, the structure of the atom, a recap of Rutherford Scattering, isotopes, nuclear radius, types of radioactivity, radioactive decay, half life, the decay constant, atomic energy levels, nuclear energy levels, how beta radiation gives evidence for nuclear energy levels, neutrinos, probability waves, electron beams, electron diffraction, deviations from Rutherford Scattering.

## Topic B - Engineering Physics

This slideshow covers: rotational forces, turning moments and torques, balancing seesaws, Newton's 1st Law and angular equilibrium, balancing a bridge, non-perpendicular forces, angular speed and acceleration, graphs of angular motion, equations for angular motion, Newton's 2nd law in angles, moments of inertia, rotational kinetic energy, rolling a ball down a slope, conservation of momentum applied to angular motion, torque-time graphs, phase changes for ice, internal energy, particle motion in gases, doing work to a gas, the First Law of Thermodynamics, Boyle's Law, pressure-volume graphs, adiabatic expansion, cyclic processes, heat engines, efficiency of a heat engine, Carnot cycles, theoretical efficiency, entropy, the Second Law of Thermodynamics (including Clausius and Kelvin-Plank statements), density, pressure, hydrostatic equilibrium, pressure in fluids, upthrust, hydraulic systems, ideal fluids, the Continuity Equation, the Bernoulli Equation, Bernoulli's Principle, pitot tubes, venturi tubes, laminar and turbulent flow, terminal velocity in fluids, Stoke's Law, the Reynolds Number, SHM, free vs forced oscillations, resonance, damping, underdamping, overdamping and critically damping, the Q factor.